Child Development Research



Sibling Relationships, Personality Traits, Emotional, and Behavioral Difficulties in Autism Spectrum Disorders
1. Introduction For many decades, research on the effects children with disabilities have on families has focused on parents--mothers in particular--although the relationship with siblings is one of the most enduring aspects of an individual's life and...
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Socioeconomic, Demographic, and Environmental Determinants of Under-5 Mortality in Ethiopia: Evidence from Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey, 2016
1. Background The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 was targeted reduction of child mortality by two-thirds by 2015 and further the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) introduced in 2016 targeted to reduce under-5 mortality rate below 25 deaths of...
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Healthcare Utilization and Morbidity among Adolescents with ADHD in Children Aged 11-17 Years, NHIS, 2017
1. Introduction Over 45% of the US population has one or more chronic diseases with health surveillance disproportionately focused on adults [1, 2]. The prevalence of chronic conditions among children has been increasing over the years. Researchers who...
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Vol. 2018, Annual

Young Children Use Discovery and Creation Significantly More Than Adults for Deciding Ownership
1. Introduction 1.1. Ownership Claims. In order to navigate the social world, children need to master ownership rules [1]. A subset of those rules is concerned with determining who owns what [2, 3]. For example, if one buys, discovers, builds, or...
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Acquisition of Letter Naming Knowledge, Phonological Awareness, and Spelling Knowledge of Kindergarten Children at Risk for Learning to Read
1. Introduction Becoming a competent reader is critical to academic achievement [1]. However, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) reports 74% of fourth-grade students attending the nation's largest school districts score below...
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Improving Early Childhood Development among Vulnerable Populations: A Pilot Initiative at a Women, Infants, and Children Clinic
1. Introduction The first 1,000 days of life (beginning at conception through two years of age) encompass rapid development, adaptation, and consolidation that takes place in brain structure and function, including peak growth in sensory (seeing/hearing),...
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Economic Disparities: SPARK Ohio and Narrowing the Kindergarten Readiness Gap
1. Introduction Early childhood learning experiences in nurturing and stimulating environments are critical for typical brain and emotional development [1, 2]. One program designed to address these needs is the SPARK Ohio program; a childfocused...
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Begging in the City: Complexities, Degree of Organization, and Embedded Risks
1. Introduction Since the beginning of 1970, one narrative tying together Ghanaian cities, like other cities in the Global South, has been the acute confluence of austerity, diminishing public welfare, and fragmentation of formal employment [1-3]....
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Vol. 2017, Annual

Overweight and Normal-Weight Children's Decision-Making in a Child Variant of the Iowa Gambling Task
1. Introduction The prevalence of overweight and obesity has severely increased over the last three decades in both children and adults [1]. In the so-called obesogenic environment, where palatable, high-calorie food is almost always available,...
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Mental State Talk Structure in Children's Narratives: A Cluster Analysis
1. Introduction Theory of Mind (ToM) is "the recognition of one's and others' affective and epistemic mental states as the psychological causes and motives underlying behaviours (p. 1)" [1]. The strict interconnection between language and ToM has...
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Young Children's Risk-Taking: Mothers' Authoritarian Parenting Predicts Risk-Taking by Daughters but Not Sons 1. Introduction Risk-taking by young children can lead to unintentional injury and, in some cases, hospitalization, permanent disability, and death [1-6]. Efforts to reduce risk-taking in young children through educational...
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Metasynthesis of Factors Contributing to Children's Communication Development: Influence on Reading and Mathematics
1. Introduction Reading and mathematics consistently form the foundation of educational curricula in the United States. Still, students in the United States underperform students in other industrialized nations in the areas of reading and mathematics...
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Children Adopt the Traits of Characters in a Narrative
1. Introduction Many parents monitor the books, shows, and movies their children encounter, presumably because they think these narratives influence children beyond the reading or viewing experience: Children who read about a smart or kind character,...
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How Usual Is "Play as You Usually Would"? A Comparison of Naturalistic Mother-Infant Interactions with Videorecorded Play Sessions in Three Cultural Communities
1. Introduction A commonly used paradigm to study mother-infant interactions in developmental research has been to videotape "free play" situations of mothers with their infants. Mothers are frequently asked to "behave in their usual manner" [1,...
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Fourteen-Month-Olds Adapt Their Imitative Behavior in Light of a Model's Constraints
1. Introduction In order to conform to their social community, humans must master a wide range of social behaviors. An intense learning process of these behaviors dominates the first years of an infant's life. When it comes to the acquisition of...
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Adults' Theory of Infants' Mind: A Comparison between Parents and Nonparents
1. Introduction Theory of mind refers to the ability to attribute mental states such as intention, desire, and belief to ourselves and others, enabling an individual to predict and explain behaviour. Earlier research has examined the development...
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Questionnaire for Assessing Preschoolers' Organizational Abilities in Their Natural Environments: Development and Establishment of Validity and Reliability
1. Introduction Organization is the ability to plan and execute an activity effectively across time and space [1-6]. Children require organizational abilities to participate in age-appropriate daily occupations [7-10]. For example, so as not...
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Type and Duration of Home Activities of Children with Specific Language Impairment: Case Control Study Based on Parents' Reports
1. Introduction According to the International Classification of Diseases 10 (ICD10) [1], children with specific language impairment (SLI) can have diagnosis F80.1 or F80.2 [1]. Diagnosis F80.1 is an expressive language disorder in which the child's...
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Infants Actively Construct and Update Their Representations of Physical Events: Evidence from Change Detection by 12-Month-Olds
1. Introduction Children's understanding about the physical world undergoes profound developments in the first two years [1-3]. Past research has documented the emergence of infants' ability to use object information in various types of physical...
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Livelihood of Street Children and the Role of Social Intervention: Insights from Literature Using Meta-Analysis
1. Introduction The enormous problems faced by the street children in the last several years were stated by different scholars in different times and topic of diverse philosophy [1,2]. The problems are widely dispersed (psychological, physical,...
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Differences between Estimation and Real Performance in School-Age Children: Fundamental Movement Skills
1. Introduction Children's perceived competence in the physical domain has attracted considerable interest in both motor skill development and sport psychology literatures. Perceived physical competence represents a psychological judgment about...
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Community-Based Family Literacy Program: Comparing Different Durations and Family Characteristics
1. Introduction Children's literacy development begins at birth as babies hear language and begin to understand meaning from the spoken word. Young children's language and literacy abilities develop rapidly during the first five years of life. It...
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Appearances Are Deceiving: Observing the World as It Looks and How It Really Is-Theory of Mind Performances Investigated in 3-, 4-, and 5-Year-Old Children
1. Theory of Mind: A Complex Construct Since Premack and Woodruff [1], "theory of mind" (ToM) has been one of the major fields of research in child development. Recognized as a multifaceted sociocognitive process [2], it shows a deep involvement...
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Integrating Orthographic and Phonological Knowledge in Early Readers: Implicit and Explicit Knowledge
1. Introduction What children know about written words as they begin school predicts their early literacy development and long term academic success (for review see [1]). Therefore, how young children develop this knowledge about words has been...
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Child Welfare Deprivation in Rural Nigeria: A Counting Approach
1. Introduction Over the past decade, Nigeria's economic growth has averaged about 7.4% annually [1] but this growth has not cut down poverty and deprivations suffered by the populace. The overall growth rate can be misleading as it reveals little...
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Measurement of Perceived Parental Success Standards in Sport and Relations with Athletes' Self-Esteem, Performance Anxiety, and Achievement Goal Orientation: Comparing Parental and Coach Influences
1. Introduction It is estimated that more than 45 million children and adolescents participate in team sports in the United States each year [1]. Millions more likely participate in individual sports such as swimming and golf. This represents more...
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The Use of Causal Language and Filled Pauses in Children with and without Autism
1. Introduction Language sample analysis (LSA) provides the opportunity to study a child's language skills in a naturalistic context (e.g., conversation or narratives) and many researchers have advocated for LSA as a substitute or complement to...
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Ingroup/Outgroup Attitudes and Group Evaluations: The Role of Competition in British Classroom Settings
1. Introduction Social groups have a profound impact on the lifestyles that individuals may lead [1], and categorising people into social groups is a skill that children exhibit from a young age. They can use gender labels by age two [2] and sort...
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Adolescent Social Anxiety and Substance Use: The Role of Susceptibility to Peer Pressure
1. Introduction Previous studies on the relation between social anxiety and substance use in young individuals have yielded ambiguous results with some studies finding a positive relation [1, 2] and others finding no relation or a negative one [3,...
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