Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences

Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences is a magazine focusing on Canadian Administrative Sciences

Articles

Vol. 26, No. 4, December

Special Issue Editorial: Conceptual Frameworks for E-Service
We are pleased to introduce the first of two special issues on e-Service. The impetus for these special issues is the growing recognition of the dominant role of service in all of its forms in modern economies, and the fact that service enterprises have...
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Seven Challenges to Combining Human and Automated Service
AbstractWe introduce this special issue by addressing seven key challenges associated with managing hybrid human-automated service systems. These consist of the following:1. What strategic and tactical issues arise when managing hybrid service systems?2....
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The Extended Website Stage Model: A Study of Canadian Winery Websites
AbstractRao, Metts, and Mora Monge (2003) proposed a stage model to reflect the progression small businesses follow in their use of Internet technology. We extend their work in two ways. We introduce marketing integration into this technology-focused...
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Dynamic Capabilities and E-Service
AbstractThe rapid, pervasive growth of Internet use for business purposes has had a noticeable effect on numerous firms' business strategies. This type of perturbation among competitors results in a more dynamic market. To be successful in such a market...
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Determinants of Online Shopping: Examination of an Early-Stage Online Market
AbstractA conceptual framework intended to predict the number of online purchases made by Internet users in an early stage market is presented and examined using data collected in Israel. Those more likely to report buying online saw low costs and substantial...
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Amazon's Evolving Ecosystem: A Cyber-Bookstore and Application Service Provider
AbstractAmazon.com has been through several stages of development: first as a cyber-bookstore, then a cyber-market, and now an Application Service Provider (ASP). I apply the concept of "business ecosystem" to describe the evolution of Amazon.com, and...
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Vol. 26, No. 1, March

Healthy and Safe Workplaces: Aspiring to Contributions from Multiple Administrative Disciplines
Joseph Stiglitz (2002), in a lecture given to the International Labour Organization (JJ-O) office in 2001, reminds us that "the purpose of economic activity is to increase the well-being of individuals, and economic structures that are able to do so...
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Workplace Risks and Stressors as Predictors of Burnout: The Moderating Impact of Job Control and Team Efficacy
AbstractAir medical healthcare (AMH) professionals care for critically-ill individuals while conveying them to healthcare centres from distant, and frequently dangerous, locations. AMH professionals experience additional health and safety issues beyond...
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Proactive Personality and Work Performance in China: The Moderating Effects of Emotional Exhaustion and Perceived Safety Climate
AbstractGrounded in the interactionist paradigm, this study shows that emotional exhaustion and perceived safety climate constitute important moderators of the relationship between proactive personality and work performance. More specifically, the study...
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Mental Illness at Work: An Assessment of Co-Worker Reactions
AbstractGuided by Colella, Paetzold, and Belliveau (2004), we surveyed 305 employees on their reactions towards coworkers with mental illness. Co-workers were less likely to view longer/more frequent work breaks as appropriate accommodations for the...
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Structural Replacement or Structural Inducement: Government Ties of Chinese Business Executives
AbstractWe suggest that the structural replacement thesis, which proposes that managers in Chinese nonstate-owned enterprises (NSOEs) possess more government ties than managers in Chinese state-owned enterprises (SOEs), is theoretically incomplete because...
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Attributes of Social and Human Capital Disclosure and Information Asymmetry between Managers and Investors
AbstractWe extend the literature on voluntary disclosure by investigating the impact of precision attribute of social and human capital disclosure on information asymmetry. We provide evidence on how the stock market reacts to different levels of information...
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Strategy as Practice Research Directions and Resources
Strategy as Practice Research Directions and Resources By G. Johnson, A. Langley, L. Melin, and R. Whittington (2007) New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 258 pp. ISBN: 9780521862936The Strategy as practice (SAP) approach is receiving increasing...
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Vol. 24, No. 3, September

An Examination of the Relationships among Market Orientation, Innovation Resources, Reputational Resources, and Company Performance in the Transitional Economy of Slovenia
AbstractWe investigated relationships among market orientation, innovation and reputational resources, and their impact on market performance and financial performance within the transitional economy of Slovenia. Market orientation related positively...
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Political Risk and the Internationalization of Firms: An Empirical Study of Canadian-Based Export and FDI Firms
AbstractPolitical risk analysis primarily receives attention for foreign direct investment (FDI) but only rarely for exporting. We examine how exporters and foreign direct investors evaluate the relative importance of political risk factors. We provide...
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Ownership Concentration and Corporate Governance Practices: Substitution or Expropriation Effects?
AbstractThe objective of this study is to analyze the relation between ownership concentration and corporate governance practices of a group of Canadian companies listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange. We rely on the corporate governance index developed...
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Knowledge Engineering for Modelling Reasoning in a Diagnosis Task: Application to Search and Rescue*
AbstractThis paper pertains to the application of knowledge engineering methods to aeronautical search and rescue in Canada. We modelled at the knowledge level the reasoning process of a search mission coordinator when conducting a diagnosis task to...
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Assessing Credit Quality from the Equity Market: Can a Structural Approach Forecast Credit Ratings?
AbstractWe investigate the empirical performance of default probability prediction based on Merton's (1974) structural credit risk model. More specifically, we study if distance-to-default is a sufficient statistic for the equity market information concerning...
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A Management System Exempt from Power: Learning to Manage with Consideration for Others
A Management System Exempt from Power: Learning to Manage with Consideration for Others Christian Bourion (2006). New York, NY & Hampshire, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 150 pp. ISBN-13: 978-0-230-00218-0 and ISBN-10: 0-230-00218-8Christian Bourion is...
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Vol. 24, No. 2, June

Excess Control and the Risk of Corporate Expropriation: Canadian Evidence
AbstractCorporate governance in Canada was examined by looking at the ultimate ownership structure of a large sample of publicly traded firms. Results suggest that small investors in Canada are vulnerable to corporate expropriation in large firms. Despite...
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The Purchase versus Illegal Download of Music by Consumers: The Influence of Consumer Response towards the Artist and Music*
AbstractBased on qualitative and quantitative surveys, I show that consumer responses toward a particular song and toward its performer(s) play distinct roles in explaining consumer choices to either buy or illegally download that song. The various types...
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Exploring Location-Specific Assets and Exploiting Firm-Specific Advantages: An Integrative Perspective on Foreign Ownership Decisions
AbstractExploiting existing assets and exploring new assets are two major and often concurrent forces driving firms to invest abroad. Moving beyond prior attention to their separate effects on foreign ownership decisions, this study examines their integrative...
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Refining Momentum Strategies by Conditioning on Prior Long-Term Returns: Canadian Evidence
AbstractCross-sectional returns in Canada are predictable using both momentum and reversal strategies. Synergies realized by focusing on the entire term structure of prior returns lead to better predictability. An enhanced index strategy based on these...
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Organizational Behaviour in a Global Context
Organizational Behaviour in a Global Context Albert J. Mills, Jean C. Helms Mills, Carolyn Forshaw and John Bratton (2007) Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press, 599 pages (softcover) ISBN: 1-551-93057-9From the opening incident detailing some of the...
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Editorial
Given an increase in the number of desk rejections in recent months it is appropriate to reiterate the mandate of the Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences (CJAS). CJAS publishes manuscripts that make a unique contribution to advancing theory and/or...
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John P. Meyer and Christian Vandenberghe: Division Editors Organizational Behaviour/Human Resource Management
Christian Vandenberghe is a Full Professor in the Department of Management at HEC Montreal. He completed his Ph.D. in industrial and organizational psychology in 1996 at the Catholic University of Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. He was appointed...
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Price Competition during and after Promotions
AbstractWe provide a framework for setting regular prices and using promotional discounts in a duopoly where long-term promotional effects are present and the firms' pricing and promotional strategies are common knowledge (e.g., as in online markets)....
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Vol. 18, No. 4, December

Preparing for Ethical Leadership in Organizations
Abstract True and effective leadership is that in which the leader's behaviour and the exercise of the leadership influence process are consistent with ethical and moral values. This paper explores the need for ethical leadership and the ways in which...
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The Mythic Horizon of the University: Problems and Possibilities for Value-Based Leadership
Abstract There is presently a growing malaise in the university where more and more faculty are feeling disillusioned and increasingly disconnected from the institution. At one level the malaise is rooted in the university's financial crisis. Repeated...
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Ethical Leadership in Modern Medicine
Abstract Because of the necessity for morality and virtue in the practice of medicine, ethical leadership becomes a fundamental obligation of the profession in its relations with the society it serves. Ethical leadership entails leading others in setting...
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Carving Leaders from the Warped Wood of Humanity
Abstract This essay argues that the ethical standards for leaders should not be different from those for everyone else. Leaders are carved out of morally fallible humans who are put in positions where they are expected to fail less than most people....
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Ethical Leadership and Governance in Organizations: A Preamble
This is the first Special Issue of the Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences devoted entirely to ethical leadership and governance in organizations. The need to explore the phenomenon of ethical leadership in organizations is prompted by the increasing...
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Integrating Leadership Styles and Ethical Perspectives
Abstract This paper reviews two major ethical theories and the manner in which the values they espouse are associated with the directive, transactional, and transformational leadership styles. A model of ethical leadership is proposed which relates the...
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Ethical Values of Transactional and Transformational Leaders
Abstract Ethical leadership literature (Bass & Steidlmeier, 1999; Kanungo & Mendonca, 1996) suggests that authentic transformational leadership must be based on some moral foundation. Such literature is not as clear, however, on whether transactional...
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Good Governance: A Philosophical Discussion of the Responsibilities and Practices of Organizational Governors
Abstract This paper explores the basic responsibilities of those who "govern" any kind of organization, whether these be non-profits, widely held or closely held firms, cooperatives, or voluntary agencies. It adopts a perspective that is largely philosophical...
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Vol. 18, No. 3, September

The Impact of Hospital Amalgamation on the Job Attitudes of Nurses
Abstract In this longitudinal panel study we examined nurses' reactions to hospital amalgamation in both the hospitals being acquired and the acquiring hospitals. Data were collected in 1992, two years prior to the amalgamation announcement; in 1995,...
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Changing Role of Women in Education: Dialectic and Duality of the Organizational Power Ethos
Abstract This paper presents an organizational framework of power depicting the relationship between structure and agency within a continuum of the three dimensions of power. The three dimensions of power are integrated into a model through an example...
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Individual and Situational Factors Influencing Negative Word-of-Mouth Behaviour
Abstract Negative word-of-mouth is one form of consumer response to dissatisfaction that has received little attention from business firms, yet it is a silent and potent force that is capable of wreaking havoc on a firm's bottomline. This study examines...
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A Binomial Option Pricing Model under Stochastic Volatility and Jump
Abstract Numerous papers have investigated the pricing of options on traded assets when either the underlying asset follows a jump diffusion process or the volatility of the underlying asset is assumed to be stochastic. This paper extends the literature...
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Workplace Literacy Problems: Triangulating on Potential Hot Spots
Abstract Low levels of literacy skills among workers in the new globalized and information age have been much discussed recently. However, workers' low literacy skills are only a problem if their skills do not meet their job requirements. Auditing workplace...
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An Institutional Theory of Organizational Retrenchment: Adoption of Early Faculty Retirement Programs among Ontario Universities
Abstract Although the influential institutional theory specifies that coercive, mimetic, and normative processes drive organizational change, mimicry has been emphasized at the expense of the other processes. This situation not only misrepresents the...
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Vol. 18, No. 2, June

Situated Motivation: An Empirical Test in an Accounting Course
Abstract The enhanced motivation and performance benefits associated with the use of enriched work environments (i.e., high task identity, variety, and significance; worker autonomy; and frequent performance feedback) have been well established (Hackman...
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Optimal Stationary Policy for a Repairable Item Inventory Problem
Abstract This paper considers an infinite-horizon repairable-item inventory problem wherein the number of repairable units returned to the system in a given period is assumed to be equal to random proportions of the serviceable units issued in the current...
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Securities Regulation Reform and the Decline of Rights Offerings
Abstract This paper develops the hypothesis that the decline in the use of rights offerings is due to reductions in issue costs brought about by changes in securities regulation. The hypothesis is tested in two jurisdictions: Canada and the United States....
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Optimal Salesforce Quota Plans under Salesperson Job Equity Constraints
Abstract This article shows how management can set motivating and profit maximizing sales force quota plans and at the same time provide various forms of equity to salespersons, especially occupational equity (relative to external salespersons), job...
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Vol. 18, No. 1, March

Workplace Flexibility and the Changing Nature of Work: An Introduction
There has long been widespread adherence to the view that organizational survival and success depends, to a greater or lesser extent, on the degree to which organizational features incorporate a level of flexibility that allows them to adapt to changes...
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High Involvement Work Systems and Job Insecurity in the International Iron and Steel Industry
Abstract The different factors behind globalization and the emergence of high involvement work practices do not necessarily carry similar implications for labour. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of high involvement work systems upon...
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Organizational Flexibility in Western and Asian Firms: An Examination of Control and Safeguard Rules in Five Countries
Abstract This paper examines the influence of family and government ownerships and of labour unions on the adoption of control and safeguard rules in Asian (Hong Kong, Korea, and Malaysia) and Western (Australia and Canada) organizations. Following Ng...
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Pay Systems and Organizational Flexibility
Abstract This paper argues that the type of pay system utilized by an organization can either facilitate or hinder its ability to achieve structural flexibility. It contends that pay systems that include group-based pay will facilitate structural flexibility,...
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Labour Flexibility and Related HRM Practices: A Study of Large Taiwanese Manufacturers
Abstract This study examines the human resource management practices that may affect labour flexibility, that is, the adaptability of a firm's workforce. A random sample of managers in the largest manufacturers in Taiwan completed a structured questionnaire...
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Population Aging in Canada and Japan: Implications for Labour Force and Career Patterns
Abstract The scenario of population aging in developed countries has been discussed mainly in terms of spiralling pension and health care costs. With below-replacement-level fertility rates in most of the developed world, many countries face a stagnant...
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Vol. 17, No. 4, December

Information Technology Alignment in the Canadian Forces
Abstract This paper reports on a study of alignment between organizational and information technology (IT) objectives as found in the Canadian Forces at the base, or business unit, level. Eight Canadian Forces sites were examined to assess their current...
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HRM Practices and Organizational Commitment: Test of a Mediation Model
Abstract This study was conducted to examine the mechanisms involved in observed relations between human resource management (HRM) practices and employee commitment. Employees (N = 281) from several organizations completed a survey that included measures...
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Stamping Our History: The Story of Canadian Business as Portrayed by Postage Stamps
Abstract This paper reviews Canadian postage stamps issued for the past 100 years to identify business-related subjects and to ascertain how business history has been reflected. For the first half of the period studied, staples produced from agriculture...
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Cointegration and Canada-U.S. Team Structures: Does Accounting for Structural Breaks Make a Difference?
Abstract Using weekly data on Canadian and U.S. T-bill and Tbond yields over the 1982 to 1996 period, we find evidence in support of the generalized interest parity model (i.e., co-movement) for T-bond term structures, but not for T-bill term structures....
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A Meta-Analysis to Review Organizational Outcomes Related to Charismatic Leadership
Abstract This study applied meta-analysis to assess the relationship between charismatic leadership style and leadership effectiveness, subordinate performance, subordinate satisfaction, subordinate effort, and subordinate commitment. Results indicate...
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Vol. 17, No. 3, September

The Sensitivity of Canadian Corporate Investment to Liquidity
Abstract This study examines the investment behaviour of 201 Canadian firms over the 1987-94 period and confirms that liquidity is a significant determinant of Canadian corporate investment. Contrary to recent US evidence, the investment-liquidity sensitivity...
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Perceptions about the Extent of Succession Planning in Canadian Family Firms
Abstract Despite exhortations about the importance of succession planning for the family firm, many believe that family firms continue to leave succession planning to chance. This study shows that family members have different opinions about whether...
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Controlling Shareholder and Executive Incentive Structure: Canadian Evidence
Abstract The presence of a controlling shareholder is a prominent feature of corporate governance. This study investigates the role of the controlling shareholder in the use of market-based incentives in executive pay. It is proposed that a closely held...
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Trying to Resolve Manufacturing Performance Trade-Offs: The Case of British Contract Electronics Assemblers
Abstract The changing nature of competitive pressure now requires companies to compete on several aspects of performance simultaneously. This reality departs from the traditional idea that organizations must find a specific area of competency and choose...
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Can We Detect Market Timing Ability Using an Option Model?
Abstract The payoff available from successful prediction of market returns can be obtained by buying a suitable option. This idea has been used to test for market timing ability. This article shows that such tests are biased toward failing to find evidence...
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The JV Dilemma: Cooperating and Competing in Joint Ventures
Abstract This paper investigates how joint venture parents interact in light of the JV dilemma, the need to act for joint gains while protecting one's own interests. Partial least squares (PLS) analysis is used to assess the proposed model which contends...
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Vol. 17, No. 2, June

Editorial
The market for fixed income securities has grown steadily in magnitude and variety over the last two decades. This market no longer comprises only simple structured bonds to which investors can apply straightforward valuation techniques and simple investment...
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Strip Bonds and Arbitrage Bounds
Abstract If the price of a coupon bond is sufficiently different from the sum of the prices of its stripped components, arbitrage trades between the two will be profitable. We estimate the size of the price difference between the prices of a coupon bond...
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Bargains in the Corporate Convertible Bond Market
Abstract The embedded option implicit in Treasury issues has recently attracted a lot of attention. Studies in the callable US Treasury bond market suggest that prices of callable bonds often imply negative values for the call option embedded in them....
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Credit Spreads between German and Italian Sovereign Bonds: Do One-Factor Affine Models Work?
Abstract In this paper we analyze the credit spread between Italian and German government bonds after the exchange-- rate agreement in May 1998. We estimate the parameters of two mean-reverting affine models for the German term structure and the spread...
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